I've read the naturalization law was tightened up considerably, effective Sept 1906. Declaration of Intention (first papers) required many, many more details, and likewise the final Application for Naturalization after the five-year waiting period required details, this time including the names of all the unmarried and/or minor children of the person requesting naturalization.
First papers could be filed 2 years after the immigration under the previous law (not sure about 1906)and be filed with "such courts that are courts of record, have a seat and seal and are competent of jurisdiction in either law or equity." After five years or more, final app could be filed.
I belive that first papers and final app did not have to be filed in the same court, so you need to check in the courts where he lived at different times.
The census should show the date of immigration, naturalized or not, and date naturalized. Double check this.
Since he was 17 when he immigrated, he could have applied an an individual, or been automatically naturalized (if unmarried) as a child of his father (or mother) when the father was naturalized. You've got quite a few things to figure out. The National Archives has great information.
My Texas Polish immigrant family was researched. Birth records were located in the churches where children were baptized or christened, usually on the date or very soon after. Villages were know by Polish, German, Austrian and Jewish names. Poland has been modernized and re-organized politically, so you will need older maps or research material.
Progenealogists.com has very useful information, use the menus on the top to locate background info by Country.
Poland did not exist as a political entity until relatively recently, having been divided between Prussia on the west and Russia on the east, and Austria on the southern tip, hence the confusing birthplaces on census records-they didn't always know what to write down, they were "ethnic" Poles. Many records were destroyed during the war.
Back in 1854, my ancestors just walked off the boat and up the dock...