I have just completed hand copying all census records for every Esher who lived in Phila from 1810-1920. I did not find any Esher's living in the city from 1790-1800.
Here is some information that I found on Charles W. Esher. Some of the information may not be exactly correct to the information that you provided but it seems to be very close.
Census Year: 1870
Phila. 1st Ward
Date: July 1, 1870
Roll 1387 Page 637
John Esher,age 47,House Painter
Ann Esher, age 45, Keeping House
Charles Esher, age 9, student
All were born in PA. John and Ann are listed as unable to read and write. John's parents are listed as being born oversees. Their names and location of birth are not provided. His personal value was $100.00
I did not find a listing for this family in 1880. Of course, the 1890 census does not exist.
There are two listings for Charles W. Esher in the 1900 Census. The birth date is the same so I presume that he owned two houses and was counted twice.
Charles Esher, 39, March 1861, PA
Margaret Esher, 34, Dec 1865, PA
May Esher, 11, Aug 1888, PA
Theodore (no last name given) 70, March 1830,PA
Elizabeth Henderson, 65, May 1835, KY. No relationship given.
This information was found in Vol.196,ED 827,Sheet 16,line 61.
Charles W. Esher, 39, March 1861, PA
Charles, Jr.,14, Feb 1886, PA
Ann M.(listed as mother to Charles,Sr)75,Apr 1825,PA
This information was found in Vol 194, Ed, 916,Sheet 10,line 83.
Census Year 1910
Charles W. Esher, Sr, 49,PA
Elizabeth, wife, 31, PA
Charles, Jr, son, 23, PA
William C, son, 2, PA
Sydia J.Dickson,(listed as grandmother to Charles Sr,)70, PA
Unfortunately, I forget to mark down the roll number for this information (1910) Sorry!!
Census Year 1920
Charles W. Esher, 57, Pa
Elizabeth, wife, 41, PA
William, son, 11, PA
Margaret R, daughter, 5, PA
This information was found in Vol 229,ed 309,Sheet 9,line 15
I hope this is the information that you are seeking. If you have any questions you can contact me via direct e-mail at:RCBtravel1@aol.com