The exact date and place of the marriage will help you to find it, but is irrelevant to a search for his data in Canada.
You are not looking for a marriage certificate, you are looking for the parish and the entry of the marriage in the parish register they were married in.
Were any of their children baptized? If so, where? What church in what town in Minnesota? Do records exist for the church the Patenaude family attended in the period the marriage took place? Have you found any marriage records of other siblings of Philomene Patenaude?
The "hump" to hurtle in all FC research is finding the data on the US side first. This data, for the most part, is not in on-line databases and it may not be on film in the LDS archive. The Catholic Church is very proprietary with its' data, and it takes some work to find the parish registers. Have you attempted to search for the church register in the location where the bride lived?
Once you have the names of the parents from the marriage record, a search in Canada can be executed using on-line dbs. There were numerous Peter Raymonds born in the same period, and Raymond has many "dits". There is simply no way to "guess" which one would be yours.
I wildcarded a search for a bap record for a Pierre Raymond in a 10 year span on either side of 1826, and was returned 58 results, none in the vicinity of Chambly. Now what?
A search only works if you have the parents names, you search their marriage first to establish location and then fill in the children.
A way to back door a search is if you have some siblings, with less common given names.